In a study of 1,521,501 Israeli adolescents who were examined between 1967 and 1997, a total of 2490 people developed ESRD over 30 years of follow-up, and a history of any childhood kidney disease was associated with a 4.2-fold increased risk of ESRD. The associations between each diagnosis of kidney disease in childhood (congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, pyelonephritis, and glomerular disease) and the risk of ESRD in adulthood were similar in magnitude, with 3.9- to 5.2-fold increased risks. A history of kidney disease in childhood was also associated with younger age at the onset of ESRD in the NEJM study.